## Contents

.1 Preface
.2 Thanks

.4.2 Sound Recording

.4.4 Psychoacoustics
.4.5 Acoustics

1.1 Units
1.1.1 SI
1.1.2 Time
1.1.3 Length
1.1.4 Mass
1.1.5 Force
1.1.6 Other systems
1.2 Geometry
1.2.1 Right Triangles
1.2.2 Slope
1.3 Exponents
1.4 Logarithms
1.4.1 Warning

1.6.2 Rational Numbers
1.6.3 Irrational Numbers
1.6.4 Real Numbers
1.6.5 Imaginary Numbers
1.6.6 Complex numbers

1.6.11 Complex Conjugates

1.7.1 Who cares?

1.8.1 Decimal (Base 10)
1.8.2 Binary (Base 2)

1.8.4 Other Bases

1.9.1 Functions
1.9.2 Limit
1.9.3 Derivation and Slope
1.9.4 Sigma - Σ
1.9.5 Delta - Δ
1.9.6 Integration and Area

1.10.1 Scientific notation
1.10.2 Prefixes

2.1.1 Introduction

2.1.4 Power and Watt’s Law

2.1.6 RMS

2.2 The Decibel
2.2.1 Gain
2.2.2 Power and Bels
2.2.3 dBspl
2.2.4 dB HL
2.2.5 dBm
2.2.6 dBV
2.2.7 dBu
2.2.8 dBFS

2.2.10 The Summary

2.3.1 Introduction

2.4 Capacitors

2.7 Inductors
2.7.1 Impedance
2.7.2 RL Filters

2.8 Transformers

2.10.1 Introduction
2.10.2 Schematic representation
2.10.3 Comparators
2.10.4 Inverting Amplifier
2.10.5 Non-Inverting Amplifier
2.10.6 Voltage Follower
2.10.7 Leftovers
2.10.8 Mixing Amplifier
2.10.9 Differential Amplifier

2.11.1 Introduction
2.11.2 Maximum Supply Voltage

2.11.5 Input Resistance

2.11.8 Output Voltage Swing
2.11.9 Output Resistance
2.11.10 Open Loop Voltage Gain
2.11.11 Gain Bandwidth Product (GBP)
2.11.12 Slew Rate

2.12.1 Active Filters
2.12.2 Higher-order filters
2.12.3 Bandpass filters

3.1 Introduction
3.1.1 Pressure

3.1.3 Damping
3.1.4 Harmonics
3.1.5 Overtones

3.1.8 Amplitude
3.1.9 Frequency and Period
3.1.10 Frequency vs. Pitch
3.1.11 Angular frequency
3.1.12 Negative Frequency
3.1.13 Speed of Sound
3.1.14 Wavelength
3.1.15 Acoustic Wavenumber

3.1.17 Time vs. Frequency
3.1.18 Impulse response
3.1.19 Noise Spectra
3.1.20 Amplitude vs. Distance
3.1.21 Free Field
3.1.22 Diffuse Field

3.2.5 Huygen’s Wave Theory

3.5.4 Tuning the string

3.6.1 Waveguides

3.6.3 Open Pipes

3.10.1 Introduction
3.10.2 Pythagorean Temperament
3.10.3 Just Temperament
3.10.4 Meantone Temperaments
3.10.5 Equal Temperament
3.10.6 Cents

3.11.1 Early Reflections
3.11.2 Reverberation
3.11.3 Resonance and Room Modes
3.11.4 Schroeder frequency
3.11.5 Critical Distance

3.12.1 Airborne sound
3.12.2 Impact noise

4.2 Population
4.3 Sample
4.4 Mean
4.4.1 Population mean
4.4.2 Sample mean
4.5 Median
4.6 Mode
4.7 Range
4.8 Deviation
4.9 Variance

4.11 Standard error
4.12 Percentile

4.15 Coherence

5.3.1 Introduction
5.3.2 Frequency Range
5.3.3 Dynamic Range
5.4 Loudness
5.4.1 Threshold of Hearing
5.4.2 dB HL
5.4.3 Phons

5.7 Localization
5.7.1 Cone of Confusion

5.9.1 Reflection patterns

5.9.3 Sound pressure level

5.10 Listening tests

5.10.2 Filter model
5.10.3 Variables
5.10.4 Psychometric function
5.10.5 Scaling methods
5.10.6 Hedonic tests
5.10.7 Non-hedonic tests
5.10.8 Types of subjects
5.10.9 Some standard test types

5.10.11 Randomization
5.10.12 Analysis
5.10.13 Common pitfalls

6.1.1 Introduction
6.1.2 Filters
6.1.3 Equalizers
6.1.4 Phase response
6.1.5 Applications

6.2.2 The Nitty-Gritty

6.3 Analog Tape
6.3.1 The simple story
6.3.2 Some more details
6.3.3 Hysteresis
6.3.4 M-H curve
6.3.5 DC Bias
6.3.6 AC Bias
6.3.7 Playback

6.4.1 Introduction
6.4.2 EMI Transmission

6.5.1 Shielding

6.5.3 Grounding

6.6.1 Introduction
6.6.2 Dynamic Microphones

6.6.4 Phantom Power

6.7.1 Introduction
6.7.2 Pressure Transducers

6.7.8 Proximity Effect
6.7.9 Acceptance Angle

6.7.12 Directivity Factor (DRF)
6.7.13 Distance Factor (DSF)

6.8.1 Introduction
6.8.2 Ribbon Loudspeakers

6.9.1 Introduction
6.9.2 Resonance
6.9.3 Electrical Impedance

6.10.1 Driver directivity
6.10.2 Enclosures
6.10.3 Other Issues

7.1.1 Digital Multimeter
7.1.2 True RMS Meter
7.1.3 Oscilloscope
7.1.4 Function Generators

7.1.6 Swept Sine Tone

7.2.1 Output impedance
7.2.2 Input Impedance
7.2.3 Gain
7.2.4 Gain Linearity
7.2.5 Magnitude Response
7.2.6 Bandwidth
7.2.7 Phase Response
7.2.8 Group Delay
7.2.9 Slew Rate
7.2.10 Maximum Output
7.2.11 Noise measurements
7.2.12 Dynamic Range

7.2.18 Crosstalk

7.2.20 DC Offset
7.2.21 Filter Q
7.2.22 Impulse Response
7.2.23 Cross-correlation

7.3.1 Frequency Response
7.3.2 Phase Response
7.3.3 Distortion
7.3.4 Off-Axis Response
7.3.5 Power Response
7.3.6 Impedance Curve
7.3.7 Sensitivity

7.4.1 Polar Pattern
7.4.2 Frequency Response
7.4.3 Phase Response
7.4.4 Off-Axis Response
7.4.5 Sensitivity

7.4.7 Impedance

7.5.1 Room Modes
7.5.2 Reflections

7.5.5 Noise Level
7.5.6 Sound Transmission
7.5.7 Intelligibility

8.1.3 Aliasing

8.1.5 Two’s complement

8.2.1 Dither

8.2.4 Further Details
8.2.5 When to use dither

8.3 Aliasing
8.3.1 Antialiasing filters

8.4.1 Filtering

8.5.1 Introduction
8.5.2 What’s being sent?

8.5.4 S/PDIF

8.5.6 Jitter

8.6 Jitter

8.7.1 Fixed Point
8.7.2 Floating Point

8.9.3 Is it worth it?

8.11 Compact Disc
8.11.1 Sampling rate
8.11.2 Word length

8.11.4 Physical construction

8.12.1 Bandwidth and disk space

9.1.2 Normalized Frequency

9.2.5 What’s the use?
9.2.6 The math

9.3.2 Spectral Leakage

9.3.4 Hann
9.3.5 Hamming
9.3.6 Triangular
9.3.7 Bartlett
9.3.8 Bartlett-Hann
9.3.9 Blackman
9.3.10 Blackman-Harris
9.3.11 Blackman-Nuttall
9.3.12 Tukey
9.3.13 More functions
9.3.14 Comparisons
9.3.15 One last little thing...
9.4 FIR Filters
9.4.1 Comb Filters

9.5 IIR Filters
9.5.1 Comb Filters
9.5.2 Danger!
9.5.4 Allpass filters

9.6.1 Convolution
9.6.2 Autocorrelation
9.6.3 Cross-correlation

9.6.5 Coherence

9.7 The z-domain
9.7.1 Introduction

9.7.3 The z-plane
9.7.4 Transfer function

9.7.6 Zeros
9.7.7 Poles

9.8.1 History

10.1.1 Introduction

10.1.3 Analog electronics
10.1.4 Analog tape
10.1.5 Meters
10.1.6 Gain Management

10.2.3 Bass management
10.2.4 Configuration
10.2.5 Calibration

10.3.1 Panning

10.3.3 Spaced techniques (A-B)

10.4.1 Phantom Images Revisited
10.4.2 Interchannel Differences
10.4.3 Summed power response

10.4.5 Conclusions

10.5.1 MS
10.5.2 Ambisonics

10.6.2 Common pitfalls
10.6.4 OCT Surround

10.6.7 Klepko Technique
10.6.8 Corey / Martin Tree
10.6.9 Michael Williams
10.6.10 Martin Tree
10.7 Time Code
10.7.1 Introduction
10.7.2 Frame Rates

10.7.5 Time Code Encoding

12.3 Greek Alphabet
12.3.1 Commonly used letters